India is an ancient and historical place on this earth. When the question is arise “What is India”, “What is the origin of India”, “What is the history of India” then this question takes us thousands and thousands years in the past. Because there is vast history behind that makes India complete. It covers thousands of years, hundreds of dynasties, many different languages and covers too many different cultures in one place.
- Stone Age
- Indus Valley Civilisation
- Dravidian Origins
- Vedic Civilisation
- The Magadha Empire
- Middle Kingdoms
- Islamic Sultanates
- Delhi Sultanates
- The Kingdom of Mysore
- Colonial Era
- Company Raj
- The British
- The Independence Movement
- Republic Of India
Stone Age exists around 3.4 million years roughly. This age covers three important phases of that time called Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic era.
- Paleolithic Era / Old Stone Age
As we all know that our earth is made around 4000 million years ago and that time ice age is the initial stage on earth. In Paleolithic era humans were just evolved and there was very small population because they just evolved. There is no community and no religion was found at that time. Men made shelters were not evolved so they lived in the caves because as there was ice age so they have to live somewhere in shelter. There was no agriculture so they use hunting for their survival. They use basic tools for hunting like rock made tools. In Paleolithic era people have knowledge of fire.
- Mesolithic Era
Till this time climate changes happens and it got warm. Climate change bought changes in flora and fauna. By this population is increased at this time period. Due to climate change ice melt into water and create rivers. So they started doing fishing also for their survival. People lived on hunting, fishing, food gathering, they even domesticated animals. Their tools were microlithic.
- Neolithic Era
Neolithic era exists in 5000-1800 BC. At this time period cultivation of plants and domestication of animals was increased. Agriculture was also increased and by the residuals of wheat and rice they made their small huts. So village settlements also come in existence. They made tools like Axe, Saw, Adzes, burins, ground stone tools for exploitation of natural resources. In Neolithic era dead bodies were also buried properly.
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
The Bronze Age starts with Indus Valley Civilisation in India in around 3300 BC. The Indus valley civilisation is located on the Indus River which now flows between India and Pakistan. The tributaries of Indus valley civilisation extends into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, The Ganges-Yamunas, Gujarat and south-eastern Afghanistan. It is the oldest civilisation of India and world’s oldest river civilisation. The Indus Valley Civilisation/Harappan Civilisation is mainly in the Bronze Age and it is located in north-western region of south Asia which is now in Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwest India. In Indus Valley Civilisation there is mainly two major cities founded by archeologist named as Mohen-jo-Daro and Harappa. Archeologist found a lot of evidence which shows that they have highly developed city life at that time.
- They have bricks houses, wells and good underground drainage system. They have bathrooms also.
- In Indus Valley Civilisation agriculture and business is main aspects of survival.
- Mohen-jo-Daro and Harappa cities both are well known for their way of living, houses, and their cultures.
- In Harappa valley the large amount of house are made of bricks.
- Harappa is mainly known for import and export products and items.
Dravidians were the majority of people that live in the Indian sub continent before the arrival of the Aryans in India at that time also they were very advanced civilisation.They were very artistic people the invention of spears,bow and arrow and also toys made of mud and soil were made by these people at time for transaction they use coins which dept the prototype of lord Shiva the physical appearance of Dravidians are dark skinned and short height . When Aryans migrated to India they have the knowledge of farming and cattle breeding . And by the fusion of mechanical tools of Dravidians and knowledge of Aryans they together created a advanced civilization in India at that time.
Vedic period lasted from 1500 BCE to 500 BCE which is from the early age of migration of Aryans into North West India. It was a heroic age and one of the most early stage of Indian civilization it was also the initial stage of Hinduism because in this era only Aryans came to India Aryans were the people who lived in central Asia and speak indo European language they brought a religion with them in India in which they worship many gods and goddesses they migrated to North West India as nomadic tribes led by their chief they were warrior they came here and form small kingdoms and they have fought many fights Mahabharata was fought in Vedic period only. They brought their literature with them in India (Vedas which are the foundation of Hinduism).Upanishads is also another body of literature that they brought to India. They speak The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages in which Vedas, Upanishads and many other literature of that time are written.
The Magadha Empire
this empirewasdivided in following part it was the golden age of india let me tell you about magdha empire in brief. The Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath has been made the national emblem of India.
- Haryanka Empire (Bimbisara dynasty) (c. 684 – c. 413 BC)
- Shishunaga Empire (c. 413 – c. 345 BC)
- Nanda Empire (c. 345 – c. 321 BCE)
- Maurya Empire (c. 325 – c. 185 BCE)
- Shunga Empire (c. 185 – c. 75 BCE)
- Kanva Empire (c. 75 – c. 30 BCE)
- Satavahana Empire (c. 30 – c. 320 CE)
- Gupta Empire (c. 321 – c. 550 CE)
- Pala Empire (c. 750 – c. 1162 CE)
Maurya Empireis main to discuss.
Maurya Empire – Maurya Empire was Iron Age of India and many historical power were there at that time it was founded by Chandragupta maurya who dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 187 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha his capital was patliputra (patna) it was the biggest kingdom to be formed at that time spanning over 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its zenith under Ashoka. It has the largest army at that time and with the assistance of Chanakya it has overthrown the empire of Nandain c. 322 BCE and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions caused by the withdrawal westward of Alexander the Great’s armies. It has captured the whole north western continent at that time but at the end of war Ashoka gave up violence and started shredding Buddhism .
Middle Kingdoms of India
Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. This period began after the end of Magadha Empire (the last known gupta empire). The corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230 BCE this has lasted for about 1500 years and ended in 13 century after the Delhi sultanate was made .which was founded in 1206, and the end of the Later Cholas. It also encompasses the era of classical Hinduism, which was dated form 200 BCE to 1100 CE. From 1 CE until 1000 CE, Indian economy was considered to be the largest at that time consisting of 1/3 (one third ) of the whole wealth of the world at that time .
Muhammad bin Qasim of Umayyads dynasty invaded Sindh and established the first Muslim empire in India in 712 AD. Umayyads Rule disrupted in 10th century because of struggle of Abbasids against umayyads. And then Mahmud ghaznawi destroyed what Umayyads. Abbasids Ruled the Sindh and Multan region till the starting of 13th century with the injection of puppet rulers.
- Delhi Sultanates– During the last quarter of the 12th century, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic plain in succession Ghazni, Multan, Sindh, Lahore, and Delhi. One of his general Qutb-ud-din Aybak,declaired himself the sultan of Delhi. ShamsuddīnIltutmish (1211–1236), a former slave-warrior in the 13th century establishes turkik kingdom in delhisultanat and was expanded to east of Bengal.
- The Kingdom of Mysore– The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India it is believed to be founded in late 13th century (1399) and was believed to be ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire .
Colonial India was the part of the Indian subcontinent which was under the jurisdiction of European colonial powers. European powers were exerted by trade and conquest and in search of wealth they had reached to India. India was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and in the end of 15 century Portuguese sailor Vasco da Gama became the first European sailor to make direct link with India in trade. At that time Calcutta was the biggest hub of trade in India . They obtained permission to trade in the city from Samoothiri Rajah.
- Company Raj – In the early 18th century India was disintegrated by Mughal empire and the kingdom of Maratha was weakened by the 3rd battle of Panipat. At that time India was divided in states and every state has their own rule so they were being manipulated by britishers and britishers had captured the whole continent. the capital of India at that time was Calcutta because it was the biggest hub for trade and business at that time . Company’s Raj lasted until 1858, after the Indian rebellion of 1857, it was abolished. With the Government of India Act 1858.
- The British – The rule of britishers lasted for about 200 years in this Indian sub-continent it took them approx. 100 years to capture the whole conti9nent and then rule it for 100 years. Nawab of Bengal surrendered his dominions to the Companyin 1765, when the Company was granted the diwani(the right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Biharor in 1773).
- The Independence Movement after – So many resistance and battles between Indian and britishers India got its independence on 15 august 1947 . Before the independence the britishers announced that they will leave India in august and each state of India is free to have a choice whether they want to join India or Pakistan or they want to make their own independent state they were leaving India in the form they conquer it . they have divided this sub-continent in two parts India and Pakistan .
Republic of India
The history of republic of India is very vast it began on 26 January 1950 when the constitution of India was introduced in the sub-continent. India got its independence on 15 august 1947 when this subcontinent was divided in two parts Pakistan and India. Partition led to a population transfer of more than 10 million people between India and Pakistan and the death of about one million people. At the time of partition majority of Muslim choose to live in Pakistan and nation faced religious violence, caste ism, naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies. And after the partition India became a secular, and a democratic nation. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first prime minister of India.